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 Liver Disease

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Join date : 2013-02-28

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PostSubject: Liver Disease   Liver Disease EmptySun Sep 21, 2014 10:10 am

Liver Disease

Signs and Symptoms of Liver Disease

The symptoms related to liver dysfunction include both physical signs and a variety of symptoms related to digestive problems, coagulopathies, blood sugar problems, immune disorders, abnormal absorption of fats, and metabolism problems.

The malabsorption of fats may lead to symptoms that include indigestion, reflux, deficit of fat soluble vitamins, hemorrhoids, gallstones, intolerance to fatty foods, intolerance to alcohol, nausea and vomiting attacks, abdominal bloating, and constipation.

Nervous system disorders include depression, mood changes, especially anger and irritability, poor concentration and "foggy brain", overheating of the body, especially the face and torso, and recurrent headaches (including migraine) associated with nausea.

The blood sugar problems include hypoglycaemia.

Hypercholesterolemia: elevated LDL cholesterol, reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, clogged arteries leading to high blood pressure, heart attacks and strokes, buildup of fat in other body organs (fatty degeneration of organs), lumps of fat in the skin (lipomas and other fatty tumors), excessive weight gain (which may lead to obesity), inability to lose weight even while dieting, sluggish metabolism, protuberant abdomen (pot belly), cellulite, fatty liver, and a roll of fat around the upper abdomen (liver roll) etc.[citation needed] Or too low levels of lipids: hypocholesterolemia: low total cholesterol, low LDL and VLDL cholesterol, low triglycerides.

There are more than a hundred kinds of liver disease. The most widely spread are as follows:

Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver, is caused mainly by various viruses (viral hepatitis) but also by some liver toxins (e.g. alcoholic hepatitis), autoimmunity (autoimmune hepatitis) or hereditary conditions.

Alcoholic liver disease is any hepatic manifestation of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Analogous terms such as "drug-induced" or "toxic" liver disease are also used to refer to the range of disorders caused by various drugs and environmental chemicals.

Fatty liver disease (hepatic steatosis) is a reversible condition where large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, among other causes. Fatty liver may lead to inflammatory disease (i.e. steatohepatitis) and, eventually, cirrhosis.

Cirrhosis is the formation of fibrous tissue (fibrosis) in the place of liver cells that have died due to a variety of causes, including viral hepatitis, alcohol overconsumption, and other forms of liver toxicity. Cirrhosis causes chronic liver failure.

Primary liver cancer most commonly manifests as hepatocellular carcinoma and/or cholangiocarcinoma; rarer forms include angiosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma of the liver. (Many liver malignancies are secondary lesions that have metastasized from primary cancers in the gastrointestinal tract and other organs, such as the kidneys, lungs, breast, or prostate.)

Primary biliary cirrhosis is a serious autoimmune disease of the bile capillaries.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the bile duct, which is believed to be autoimmune in origin.

Centrilobular necrosis of liver can be caused by leakage of enteric toxins into circulation. Salmonella toxins in ileum have been shown to cause severe damage to liver hepatic cells
Budd–Chiari syndrome is the clinical picture caused by occlusion of the hepatic vein, which in some cases may lead to cirrhosis.
Hereditary diseases that cause damage to the liver include hemochromatosis, involving accumulation of iron in the body, and Wilson's disease, which causes the body to retain copper. Liver damage is also a clinical feature of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency and glycogen storage disease type II.
In transthyretin-related hereditary amyloidosis, the liver produces a mutated transthyretin protein which has severe neurodegenerative and/or cardiopathic effects. Liver transplantation can provide a curative treatment option.
Gilbert's syndrome, a genetic disorder of bilirubin metabolism found in about 5% of the population, can cause mild jaundice.

There are also many pediatric liver diseases including: biliary atresia, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, Alagille syndrome, and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis.

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